This research project proposes to carry out an anthropological exploration of the contemporary practices of shamanism among two indigenous peoples of the Argentine Chaco region. They are the Qom/Toba of the Guaykuruan linguistic family and the Wichí/Mataco of the Matako-Mataguayo linguistic one. While they speak different languages and display also disparate cultural ethos, they went through similar historical processes that merits a fruitful comparative perspective. These processes are related to the conquest and colonization of their territories by the Spaniards in colonial times, and later by the Argentine military in the late XIXth and early XXth centuries. In addition, religious evangelization, both Catholic and Protestant, shaped a quite hybrid cultural horizon because the Qom as well as the Wichí had strong shamanic institutions that ruled their sociocosmological life. As an outcome of these historical facts, both groups show complex shamanic and even neo-shamanic phenomena, little studied and even less from a comparative perspective. In the whole Chaco region, Catholic missions became hegemonic until the 1900s. Since then, a “Protestant wave” began to expand its influence. In this regard, the comparison will stress the fact that among the Wichí, Anglican missions were pervasive as Pentecostal and later Mennonite missions worked in the Qom area. Due to these missionary churches’ theological and sociological differences, the idea is to identify their impact upon present-day indigenous shamanic and neo-shamanic practices and delineate their main features. In short, this project aims at analyzing academic literature about current Qom and Wichí shamanism, and to update my own ethnographic data on Qom shamanic practices and their religious horizon at large Parallelly, and from a conceptual viewpoint, this work will dialogue with contemporary anthropological productions on South American shamanisms, and on indigenous shamanic practices worldwide.